Upper

This is the name for the unit that makes up the top part of a shoe or the part of the shoe that encases the foot and allows for stability and breathability.  Generally made up of various materials and components such as leather, synthetics, meshes, foams, plastic, laces, etc [1].

The upper of a shoe is the  consists of all parts or sections of the shoe above the sole.  The upper of the shoe consists of the vamp (or front of the shoe), the quarters (i.e. the sides and back of the shoe), and the linings.

 

Uppers are made in a variety of different materials, both natural and synthetic. Leather allows air to pass through to and from the skin pores. The ability for leather to crease over flexor surfaces further facilitates the function of the foot. Synthetics are cheaper to mass-produce and are now found in most footwear. Synthetic surfaces provide waterproofing and most leather today has synthetic components. An alternative shoe cover is cotton corduroy woven fabric which provide lightweight breathable surfaces [2].

Bibliography

image: http://www.asics.co.uk/running/knowledge/anatomy-of-a-running-shoe/. Accessed 3/26/2012

[1] http://allaboutshoes-toeslayer.blogspot.com/2009/10/anatomy-of-shoe-according-to-mcphoil.html.  Accessed 3/26/2012

[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shoe#Vamp.2C_or_upper.  Accessed 3/26/2012

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