Study 1

Effect of Footwear on High and Low Arched Runners’ Mechanics during a Prolonged Run

Robert J. Butlera, Joseph Hamilld, Irene Davisb.



Running shoes are designed specifically for different foot types in order to reduce injuries. Running in the correct footwear matched for foot type may have a greater influence on mechanics when runners become exerted. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in kinematics and kinetics over the course of a prolonged run when low (LA) and high (HA) arched runners wear motion control and cushioning shoes.


Twelve HA and 12 LA recreational runners were recruited for this study. Subjects ran in a motion control (MC) and cushion trainer (CT) shoe. Lower extremity kinematics and tibial accelerometry were collected while the runners ran at a self-selected training pace. The data were analyzed using a two-way (footwear × time) repeated measures ANOVA (p = 0.05) for each arch type.


Low arched runners: Peak tibial internal rotation decreased in the MC shoe and was increased in the CT over the course of the prolonged run. However, no interactions or main effects were noted for peak eversion or eversion excursion. High arched runners: No shoe by time interaction was observed for tibial shock. However, there was a main effect for shoe, with lower tibial shock associated with the CT shoe.


In LA runners, MC shoes decreased tibial internal rotation compared to CT shoes over the course of a prolonged run. In HA runners, running in the CT shoes reduced tibial shock compared to the MC shoes.

This research study found that runners with low arches might benefit from motion control shoes (MC shoes) because these shoes decreased their tibial internal rotation when compared to cushioned training shoes.  High arch runners might benefit from running in cushioned training shoes because these shoes reduced the tibial shock when compared to the motion controlled shoes.

Many research studies have been performed and continue to be done in order to find and suggest the best type of shoe depending on a runners foot type.  This one is an example.


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